The post adoption support issue
The need for post adoption support
Adopted children leaving care are considered as taking the best possible exit route, being lucky and on a track for an improved life. However, all of those children have gone through the painful process of being separated from their family (even if it is for their own good, it is still traumatic) and 70% of them experienced abuse or neglect (according to DfE's statistics for the year ending 31 March 2016). Consequently, many adopted children, if not all, have complex emotional, behavioural, and developmental needs arising for some time after adopted.
Potential adoptive parents who genuinely want to provide a family to a child can be discouraged due to the fear that they might not know how to satisfy their adoptive child's complex needs. Having a structured and supportive post-adoption plan can increase potential adoptive parents' confidence as well as the number of people willing to adopt.
Evidence, although scarce, consistently shows that post adoption support in England is definitely in need of improvement. Pennington (2012) revealed that adoptive parents, under the Adoption and Children Act 2002, were often not aware of their right to request an assessment for adoption support services, with 64% stating that they had not been informed of this entitlement. Moreover, Sturgess and Selwyn (2007) found that adopters' satisfaction with services is mixed and over half (58%) of adopters described feeling inadequately supported.
A recent paper (Lushey C, Holmes L, McDermid S (2017) "Normalizing post adoption support for all." Child Fam Soc Work. 2017;1–9) explores post adoption support in England by using the results of a survey of 22 English LAs in 2011 and 11 in-depth interviews. The results showed that it is common for families to request an assessment at crisis point, i.e. when the adoption is at risk of breakdown and that parents are reluctant to ask for help because they think that they will be perceived as failures or they worry about protection issues. Consequently, the results showed a need for normalising support and promoting the idea that asking for help is not a sign of weakness but a sign of a good adoptive parent. Another potential solution is to put in place systems of ongoing support throughout the adoption process, as it is already happening in some LAs. The results also reflect a lack of capacity in the adoption and post adoption teams, the need for specific training and a lack of specialist knowledge and expertise.
Evidence, although scarce and usually coming from small sample surveys, indicates that support is rarely continued post adoption. Those families that do require support often request it at crisis point, rather than when issues first emerge. If they do receive an assessment of need, identified needs cannot always be met due to resources, and English LAs are not required by law to provide support.
On the bright side, the increased Adoption Support Fund and the regionalisation of adoption agencies can contribute to addressing these issues. For this to be true, though, the first step is parents to be fully aware of what post adoption support is available for their family and not be reluctant to ask for help early on.